§ salep 1. n. § -- X salep naneu Y = 'X is an error or delusion consisting of something being mistaken for something else, caused by Y' | Do néh seruh éh lakei néh poho, Uyau Abéng Balang Nyaréng. Semu'un néh ri' inah éh salep naneu Balei Puling. 'His wife thought he was her own husband, Uyau Abéng Balang Nyaréng. But in fact she was mistaken, and this was due to the magic of the Conjuring Spirit.' Iah pasek usen lem kopi. Iteu salep naneu pengemutau néh. 'She put salt into her coffee. This was a mistake caused by her fatigue.' Iteu salep uban dau merem. 'This was a mistake caused by the fact it was night.' Uban salep <neu> ko' éh ja'au, pu'un kelunan matai. 'Because of the big mistake you made, a person has died.' (contrast: Uban penyala' ko' éh ja'au, pu'un kelunan matai. 'Because of your great wrongdoing, a person has died.')
§ salep 2. § -- X salep V Y = 'X mistakenly V-s Y, because X mistakenly confuses Y with something else' | Akeu salep nyelapang aseu ké'. 'I shot my dog by mistake.' Kelunan inah salep. Iah nyelapang aseu néh uban néh seruh éh babui. 'That person made a mistake. He shot his dog because he thought it was a pig.' Iah maneu ba Milo. Semu'un néh iah juk pasek gula lem néh. Uban néh salep, iah na' usen lem néh, uban néh kua' layan gula'. 'She prepared some Milo. In fact she wanted to put sugar in it. Because she made a mistake, she put salt in it, because it has the same appearance as sugar.' cf tekaleu, saro'
§ salep 3. § -- salep X V Y = 'X mistakenly V-s Y, because X mistakenly confuses Y with something else' | Salep akeu ala po'é. 'I took the machete by mistake.'
§ salep 4. § -- Y salep V X : V is a passive verb = 'Y is mistakenly V-ed by X, because X mistakenly confuses Y with something else' | Po'é salep nala ké'. 'I took the machete by mistake.'
§ salep 5. § -- X salep na'at Y kené' layan Z = 'X, seeing Y, mistakes Y for Z' | Akeu salep na'at likot ko' kené' layan likot tinen ko' réh ke' ta'an ké' uban ké' salep na'at uban kawah kua' keja'au layan. Boh ka' ka'au éh. 'I mistook your back for the back of your mother because you are both the same size. But it is you.' Iah salep na'at pasui kené' layan aseu. Uban néh kenat iah bé' nyelapang éh. 'He saw a civiet and mistook it for a dog. As a result he did not shoot it.'
§ salep 6. § -- X salep V Y, ha' X Z : V is a verb denoting perception = 'X, V-ing Y, mistakes Y for Z' | Akeu salep menéng ha' gerép aseu ha' ké' ha' kerita éh. 'I heard a dog scratching and thought it was the sound of a car.' Akeu salep menéng ha' leta ijin kerita ha' ké' ha' selapang. 'I heard a car backfire and mistook it for the sound of a shotgun.' Akeu salep marek bo. Ha' ké' bo tut éh, tapi' bé' éh bo tut. Iteu éh bo duyan. 'I mistakenly identified a smell. I thought it was the smell of a fart, but it was not. It was the smell of a durian.'
§ salep - nyalep 1. v. § -- X nyalep Y / senalep = 'X imitates the appearance of Y in order to deceive people into believing that X really is Y' + X nyalep nyavu Y or X nyavu nyalep Y (same meaning as above) | Akeu nyalep [nyavu] redo. 'I was disguised as a woman.' Redo senalep [senavu] ké'. 'It was a woman that I disguised myself.' Akeu nyalep Sylvia. 'I impersonated Sylvia.' Sylvia senalep ké'. 'It was Sylvia that was impersonated by me.' Lem ha' suket, tepun nyalep kelunan <tepun nyalep nyavu kelunan> kenéh redo lakei Penan tai lem luvang bateu. 'There is an old story in which the tiger disguises himself as a person in order to take the wife of a Penan man into a cave.' Lakei éh nyalep seradu kenéh masek uma seradu nekau selapang. 'A man who disguised himself as a soldier in order to enter the barracks to steal guns.' Layan néh iah nyavu nyalep layan tamen néh. 'He had altered his appearance to disguise himself as his father.' Gaya' temedo éh senalep balei inah. 'That spirit assumed the manner of a rhinoceros [in order to make people think there really was a rhinoceros there].' cf nyavudisguise
§ salep - nyalep 2. adj. § -- X nyalep = 'imitation or counterfeit X' | Jam éh nyalep. 'a copy (counterfeit) watch.' • imitation
§ salep - nyalep ha' § -- X nyalep ha' Y / senalep = 'X imitates the sound of Y in order to make it seem as if X really is Y' | Juhit kiong jam nyalep ha' kelunan. = Juhit kiong jam nyalep nyavu ha' kelunan. 'The minah bird is good at imitating human words.' Sahau irah Kayan jam nyalep nyavu ha' kelavet doko ke' ayau réh tai mu'a ha' inah. Tovo ayau avé, boh Kayan mematai réh. 'In the old days the Kayan would imitate the call of a gibbon so that their enemies would think there really was a gibbon and go to check out the sound. When the enemy got close, the Kayan would kill them.' Iah nyalep ha' kelavet seminga'. 'He imitated the sound of a gibbon for fun. (i.e. in order to fool people for fun).' Iah nyalep ha' babui. -- Bé' mu'un. Ha' temedo éh senalep néh. 'He imitated the sound of a pig (in order to deceive people into thinking a pig was present -- what a demon might do). -- That's not so. It was the sound of a rhinoceros that he imitated.' • imitate
§ salep - pesalep v. § -- X pesalep layan <usah> X barei layan Z = 'X disguises X -self to make X -self look like Z' | Bé' irah seruh éh Kekihan uban néh pesalep layan néh barei layan tamen néh ri' mu'un. 'They did not suspect he was Kekihan, so effectively was he disguised as his father.' Iah pesalep usah néh barei layan redo. 'He disguised himself as a woman.' • disguise
§ salin idiom. n. p. § -- kelunan salin = 'interpreter' | Amo pitah kelunan salin éh jam salin ha' Putih tai ha' Penan. 'We are looking for an interpreter who can translate English into Penan.' • interpreter
§ salin 1. v. § -- X salin Y jin Z tai lem W ngan V / senalin / nvp pesalin = 'X translates Y from language Z into language W so that V can understand' + X salin Y teneng 'X translates Y accurately' + X salin Y bé' teneng 'X translates Y inaccurately' + X senalin ngan teneng 'X is translated accurately' | Surat iteu lem ha' Putih, jian ka'au salin surat iteu tai lem Ha' Penan. 'This book is in English, please translate this book into Penan.' Jian ka'au salin surat iteu jin ha' Penan tai lem Ha' Putih. 'Kindly translate this letter from Penan into English.' Akeu pu'un salin ha' redo éh bé' jam ha' Melayu ngan irah éh tuai jin peritah. 'I translated what the woman who could not speak Malay was saying to the people from the government.' Surat iteu senalin ngan teneng jin ha' Putih tai ha' Penan. 'This book is translated accurately from English into Penan.' Suket Penan iteu lepah pesalin lem ha' Putih. 'This Penan story has got translated into English.' Sagam suket iteu pesalin. 'Tomorrow this legend will get translated.' • translate
§ salin 2. v. § -- X salin Y tai Z = 'X translates language Y into language Z' | Amo pitah kelunan salin éh jam salin ha' Putih tai ha' Penan. 'We are looking for an interpreter who can translate English into Penan.'
§ salip n. = 'cross, crucifix, or thing having an X-shape' • cross
§ salip v. § -- X nyalip Y / senalip = 'X crucifies Y' (used in translation of the bible) • crucify
§ salo - musit salo (rude) § -- X musit salo = 'shit comes out of X involuntarily' + X musit salo beso 'shit comes out of X involuntarily in large quantities' | Iah musit salo [beso]. 'Shit came out of him involuntarily [in large quantities].' Ha' néh kenyo Kelabit rai, éh bo ani ngan bo tut va'é kunah rai ri' dat kei, inah éh bo bua peta rai seningat Tamen Ra'ah rai pah avé néh bé ngan musit salo beso. 'What he said to the Kelabits was a lie, for the aforementioned smell of shit and foreign farts was the smell of the "peta" fruits that Tamen Ra'ah had greedily gobbled down until it made him shit in large quantities.'
§ salut salut § -- X salut salut = 'X which is strange, random, without known reason' | Hun ka'au lakau tong dirin ba banget, ka'au na'at pina livah éh salut salut. Mai meté éh. Omok maneu gaten atau suha'. 'If you walk on the seaside, you see many strange and random sorts or things. Do not pick them up. They can make you itch or wound you.' Hun ké' tai sa usit sahau rai, pina éh salut salut penguman. Akeu kon awah, uban ieng ke' penguman éh jah. 'When I went abroad, there were many strange sorts of food. I just ate them, because there was not other food.' Pu'un jah kilin -- Hun redo nemalé, banen néh bé' omok suai livah éh salut salut, bé' omok suai penganeu éh salut salut, inah lah barei maneu butun, barei nyapa ka'an salut salut, ngan mala' sio metep ojo ka'an, ngulit ulun ka'an sa jebila' awah, mejang kelingen ka'an sa jebila' awah, bé' ke' tuman penganeu. Hun néh maneu kenat anak nah omok pelin. 'There is a taboo. When a woman is pregnant, her husband cannot make things or perform deeds in a reckless or inappropriate fashion, for example fashioning a "butun", or butchering an animal in an inappropriate manner, and laughing when he chops off an animal's front legs, skinning just one side of the animal, roasting just one of the animal's ears, there being no good reason for doing so. If he does so, the child could turn out "pelin".' • strange
§ samah § -- nah samah X Q, P : Q is a verb phrase with X as subject, P is a clause; X may be a Class 3 pronoun = 'inasmuch as X Q, P' | Nah samah réh <irah> leko [réh <irah>] kereja, mai pakan réh <irah>! 'Because they are too lazy to work, do not feed them! Nah samah kelunan inah sa'at réh ngan uleu, mai lu' tebai réh taket tong lamin lu'. 'Because those people are bad to us, let's not invite them into our house.' Nah samah keh leko keh kereja. 'Because you are too lazy to work.' Nah samah iah leko kereja, mai na' gaji néh. 'Inasmuch as he is too lazy to work, do not give him his wages.' Nah samah néh leko éh kereja, mai pakan éh! 'Inasmuch as she is too lazy to work, don't feed her!' Nah samah iah kelo ngayau mé', mai buha éh taket lamin. 'Inasmuch as he wants to attack us, do not let him into the house.' Nah samah néh lemo usah iah lakau, tuah meseti' bi éh uban néh li'eu. 'Inasmuch as he is a weak walker, we must carry him because he is slow.' Nah samah Ajek lemo usah iah lakau, tuah meseti' bi éh uban néh li'eu. Nah samah néh lemo usah Ajek lakau, tuah meseti' bi éh uban néh li'eu. • inasmuch as
§ samék n. = 'large long mat made of "da'un" that have been stitched together' (for covering roof, for sleeping on, or for use as a body-length umbrella) + telap samék 'pocket-like space between the constituent layers of a "samék"'
§ samék sapau idiom. n. p. = '"samék" mat made for covering a roof' (normally rolled up and taken to each new encampment for re-use)
§ sana n. § -- sana X = 'X's sweat' + X musit sana 'X sweats' | Boh selapan bi gaweng bua roh avé néh musit sana avé néh ieng ke' gahang. 'So the flying dragon carried that fruit basket until the sweat poured off him and he was quite exhausted.' • sweat
§ sana - nyana v. § -- X nyana = 'X sweats' • sweat
§ sanam n. = 'ant or termite' (general term) • ant
§ sanam kelavit idiom. n. p. = 'a kind of ant' (black, with long legs)
§ sanam lesai idiom. n. p. = 'a kind of ant' (about 1 cm long, colour alternating in stripes from back to front between tan and black, large abdomen with two hooks on it -- whence the name)
§ sanam tekok silei idiom. n. p. = 'a kind of ant' (very black in colour, about 1 cm long, inflicts a very painful sting)
§ sanan n. = 'household (= group of people living together in one house or apartment)' + X jah sanan awah 'X's household is on its own, i.e. is not in a community with other households' + sanan pina 'a community consisting of a number of households' | Lem sanan iteu pu'un duah panak. 'In this household there are two families.' Lem lamin kebit iteu pu'un pat polo sanam. 'In this longhouse there are forty households.' Pu'un jah lakei ja'au éh murip tong tana'. Iah jah sanan awah. Jah redo néh, ngan lakei ja'au inah awah, anak roh bé' pu'un. 'There was once a man who lived in the forest. He lived alone with his wife, for they were childless.' Hun tamen Kekihan lakau mihin réh paso tai irah sanan pina sitai, irah pemung ngan irah sanan pina, Kekihan péh lah ja'au hun inah. 'When Tamen Kekihan moved them to a place where many other families lived, and they joined that community, Kekihan was grown up by then.' cf panak, payamhousehold
§ sanang n. = 'a kind of gong' (see note under tawak) LFs as for gong cf tawak, teburing, genéng, gung
§ sanén n. = 'a kind of blood-sucking demon' cf ungap tilovampire
§ sanét n. = 'a kind of minor skin ailment' (described by one informant as "buteu éh si'ik -- bé' éh gaten kei." -- 'small sores that do not itch')
§ sang n. § -- sang [da'un] = 'a kind of palm frond' (that can be used to make e.g. "singau") | Maneu oso tajem pala sang. 'Make a "tajem" receptacle out of a "sang" leaf.' Pala kulit kemitan nyulek sang.
§ sang kuyat idiom. n. p. = 'a kind of epiphytic plant that grows on the upper surfaces of horizontal tree branches'
§ sangat pina idiom. n. p. = 'a measure of length equal to the distance between the tip of the index finger and its base on the side where the middle finger begins' + X kebit tong sangat pina 'X is the length of a "sangat pina"' | Jipen babui kebit tong sangat pina -- babui ja'au. 'The pig's teeth are as long as one's index finger, as measured between the fingertip and the base of the finger on the side where it joins the middle finger -- it's a big pig.' Boh Bungan na'at éh mago mu'un mu'un kekat kekat selungan néh kato peloho avé maten néh kebit tong menen nah bua ojo masek tong kedilem maten lakei néh abing ri'. 'Bungan saw how emaciated he was. He was so thin that his bracelets were sliding right off his arms and legs. And her husband abing's eyes had sunk into his skull the distance of a finger joint.' cf menen, belu'an, meka' pu'un
§ sangé n. § -- sangé X = ''gills of fish X' • gills
§ sanung see buang
§ sanya 1. - pesanya v. § -- X pesanya Y / pesanya = 'X toys with Y or bothers Y in a playful or disrespectful manner' | Mai ke pesanya lakei mukun nah. 'Don't tease that old man.' Mai ke' pesanya anak nah dai néh manga. 'Don't tease that child lest it cry.' Mai pesanya kelunan pegen. 'Don't play tricks on someone who is sleeping.' "Mai sanya akeu, barei neu dang bolo awah maneu ke' sanya akeu ka'. Kelap lah!" '"Don't tease me, you are teasing me just as if you were "dang bolo". Go away!"' (this is what a woman might say to a man who is teasing her.) syn sanya, cf mikaitease
§ sanya 2. v. § -- X sanya Y / pesanya = 'X toys with Y or bothers Y in a playful or disrespectful manner' | Mai sanya kelunan éh pegen.'Don't disturb someone who is sleeping.' Tai sanya kelunan éh pegen! 'Go and disturb (e.g. poke into wakefulness) the sleeping people.' Kelunan éh pegen pesanya néh. 'The sleeping person was disturbed by him.' Ma'o inah boh Katen bara', "Akeu tuai sanya kawah awah." 'Then Katen said, "I followed you just to tease you."' syn pesanaya
§ sap n. -- sap X = 'smoke of X' + sap [éh musit] jin X 'smoke that emerges from X' + sap éh mulun 'thick smoke' + sap nebului 'thick swirling cloud of smoke' | Ja'au sap luten inah, uban luten péh ja'au. 'That fire is making a lot of smoke, because the fire is big.' Boh kayeu inah potong ngan sap néh. 'And that wood burned, and produced smoke.' Sap kayeu iri' potong lah. 'There is smoke, the wood is burning.' Akeu omok na'at sap jin aveu vé ké' <sap éh musit jin aveu vé ké' >. 'I see the smoke from my uncle's hearth.' • smoke
§ sap - memanyap v. § -- X memanyap Y / penanyap = 'X uses smoke to control Y or to compel Y to do what X wants' | Iah memanyap layak. 'He smoked the bees (in order to pacify them.' Iah menanyap kevok. 'He used smoke to drive out a lizard.' • smoke
§ sap - ngesap v. § -- X ngesap = 'X smokes (=X gives off smoke)' + X ngesap ja'au <si'ik> 'X smokes a lot <a little>' | Jian ke' memata' luten uban néh ngesap, ngesakit maten ké'. 'Put out the fire, for it is smoking and making my eyes sting.' Luten éh ngesap ja'au <si'ik>. 'The fire is smoking a lot <a little>.' • smoke
§ sap lajang idiom. n. p. § -- sap lajang <kawa> meda = 'steam from a boiling pot <wok>' • steam
§ sapa - nyapa 1. § -- X nyapa Y Z / senapa = 'X butchers (=cuts up) [body part Y of] animal Z' | Pelun ujung kayeu tong tana' doko réh nyapa babui bau néh. 'A temporary covering of leaves on the ground so that they can butcher the pig.' Iteu lah pelanok. Ka'au nyapa éh, ma'o inah ka'au matok éh. 'That's a mouse deer. You butcher it, then you boil it up.' Jin la'o réh nyapa daran rai boh jah ulun daran awah lah moko pu'un keto lem lun. 'After they had butchered the turtle only the turtle's head still remained on the"lun".' • butcher
§ sapa - nyapa 2. § -- X nyapa Y Z || X nyapa Z / senapa = 'X cuts open body part Y of Z in a surgical operation' | Doktun nyapa lé'ép kelunan sakit baha. 'The doctor operated on the swollen upper arm of the injured person.' Kelunan sakit senapa gerisa. 'The patient was operated on by the dresser (=assistant doctor).' • operate on
§ sapa 1. n. § -- sapa X = 'slash in body of X resulting from butchering or surgery' + sapa éh ja'au 'deep slash' + sapa éh si'ik 'shallow slash' | Sin siling ké' metat lem sapa babui. Akeu medai anak kuman éh da'. 'The coin disappeared into the incision in the pig. I am afraid that a child might eat it.'
§ sapa 2. n. § -- sapa X = 'X which has been butchered' | Irah kesak ketem lo'ong sapa usah daran rai pah bé. 'They cooked up all the meat that they had butchered.' ...Lakei Li'et rai tio tai tong lun uban sapa daran rai iah tio meté ulun daran. 'Lakei Li'et directly went to the "lun" upon which the turtle had been butchered and picked up the turtle's head.'